Drupal is a free and open source content management framework written in PHP and distributed under GNU General Public License. It provides a backend frame work for 2.2% of all web sites worldwide, ranging from personal blogs to corporate, political and government sites. Drupal is also used for knowledge management and for Business collaboration.
The standard release of Drupal, called as Drupal Core, has basic features common to content management systems. These include user account registration and maintenance, menu management, RSS feeds, taxonomy, page layout customization and system administration. The Drupal Core installation can serve as a simple website, a single or multi user bog, an internet forum, or a community website providing for user generated content.
Although Drupal offers a complicated API for developers, basic web-installation and administration of the framework need no programming skills
Drupal can run on any computing platform that supports both a web server capable of running PHP and a database to store content and configuration.
It was written by Dries Buytaert as a message board, this became an open source project in 2001. The name Drupal represents English rendering of the Dutch word “druppel” which means “Drop” (as in a “water droplet”). The name came from the now-defunct Drop.org website, whose code slowly evolved into Drupal. Buytaert wanted to call the site “dorp” (Dutch for village) for its community aspects, but mistyped it when checking the domain name and thought the error sounded better.
On December 1st, 2012, Drupal 8 started its feature completion. And about three years later, Drupal 8 first release candidate was announced (rc1). Drupal 8 includes new features and improvements for users and developers, including a revamped interface; in-place editing; improved support for mobiles; added and improved key contributed modules including Views, date and entity reference; introduced a new object oriented backend leveraging Symfony components; revamped configuration management. Drupal 8 rc1 is the collective work of over 3,200 core contributors.
Within the Drupal community, the term “core”, refers to the collaboratively built codebase that can be extended through contributor modules and for versions prior to Drupal 8 is kept outside of the “sites” folder of a Drupal installation ( starting with version 8, core is kept in its own “core” subdirectory). Drupal core is the stock element of Drupal. Bootstrap and common libraries are defined as Drupal core and all other functionalities are defined as Drupal modules including the system modules itself.
In Drupal website’s default configuration, content can be contributed by either registered or anonymous users and is made accessible to the web visitors by a range of selectable criteria. As of Drupal 8, Drupal has adopted some Symfony libraries into Drupal core.
Contributed modules offer such additional or alternate features like image galleries, custom content types and content listings, WYSIWYG editors, private messaging, third party integration tools, integrating with enterprise apps and more. As of November 2016 the Drupal website lists more than 35,800 free modules.
As of November 2016, there are more than 2,300 free community-contributed themes. These themes adapt or replace a Drupal site’s look and feel. The themes use standardized formats that may be generated by common third-party theme design engines. Many are written in PHP template engine or to a lesser extent, the XTemplate engine. Some templates use hard coded PHP. Drupal 8 will integrate the twig templating engine.
In the recent past, such of those wanting a fully customized installation of Drupal had to download a pre-tailored version separately from the official Drupal core. These days a distribution defines a packaged version of Drupal that up on installation, provides a website or app built for a specific purpose.
The distributions offer the benefit of a new Drupal site without having to manually seek out and install third-party contributed modules or adjust configuration settings. They are collections of modules, themes and associated configuration settings that prepare Drupal for custom operation.